mayo 24, 2013

Editorial


Apreciados lectores

El mes de mayo evoca toda clase de sentimientos. Esta vez aprovechamos las imágenes que la naturaleza nos regala para invitarlos a florecer con ella.

Tópicos veterinarios nos ofrece los nuevos avances sobre el método Arcón y sus logros.

Juan Manuel Cervantes continúa explorando el mundo de los cuentos didácticos.

Laura Arvizu nos habla de derechos y obligaciones.

Culturars y mamá naturaleza nos regala el florecimiento de nuevas vidas.

Felipe Román sigue muy ocupado entregándonos probaditas de libros muy interesantes.

Nos complace recibir un extraordinario recuento de los conciertos de rock and roll llevado a cabo en México, gracias. Ismael Escutia.

Los editores y colaboradores de Expresiones Veterinarias nos unimos al merecido homenaje a nuestra querida colaboradora, maestra y amiga, la doctora Irene Joyce Blank Hamer.


¡Florezcan!


Afectuosamente
Ana María Román de Carlos



Referencias sobre Melipona



Ana María Román Díaz
Biblioteca MV José de la Luz Gómez
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México, D. F., C. P. 04510
Bases de datos utilizadas
CAB Direct Abstracts
Web of Knowledge

Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees. Mercês, M. D.; Peralta, E. D.; Uetanabaro, A. P. T.; Lucchese, A. M.; Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil, Ciência Rural, 2013, 43, 4, pp 672-675, 14 ref.
Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition is not only related to the osmotic effect. The results of antimicrobial activity may explain the popular medicinal use of these honeys in bacterial diseases.

Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Alves, R. M. O.; Carvalho, C. A. L.; Souza, B. A.; Santos, W. S.; Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 2012, 84, 3, pp 679-688, 32 ref.
Abstract: The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

Influence of climatic variations on the flight activity of the Jandaira bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (Meliponinae). Oliveira, F. L. de; Dias, V. H. P.; Costa, E. M. da; Filgueira, M. A.; Espínola Sobrinho, J.; Centro de Ciencias Agrarias da Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil, Revista Ciência Agronômica, 2012, 43, 3, pp 598-603, 24 ref.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to obtain information about the influence of climatic variations on the flight activity of Jandaíra bees, M. subnitida Ducke. The research was conducted in 2006 at the stingless-bee apiaries of the Federal Semi-Arid Rural University do (UFERSA), in Mossoró, RN, from March to June (the rainy season) and September to December (the dry season). For the experiment, five colonies of M. subnitida Ducke were used, where every fortnight, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m, the flow of bees entering and leaving, and the type of material they carried, were noted. The information collected at the entrance of the colonies was correlated with climatic data, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, collected by an automatic weather station at the time of the evaluations. The joint action of the climatic variations influenced the flight activity of M. subnitida, where the influence of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation stood out. The wind speed acted only to compensate for the other meteorological factors. The external activities of the Jandaira bee are concentrated in the morning, both in the rainy season from March to June, and in the dry season from September to December. Nectar, water and pollen were collected in greater quantities during the foraging activities of the Jandaira in both periods. Therefore, management of hives in the region, is best carried out in the evening, when the external activities of the bees are coming to an end.

Indigenous bees created in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Pereira, D. S.; Menezes, P. R.; Belchior Filho, V.; Sousa, A. H. de; Maracajá, P. B.; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoro, Brazil, Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 2011, 5, 1, pp 81-91, 11 ref.
Abstract: This work aimed to perform a survey of the species of aboriginal bees without sting created by stingless bees keepers in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, as well to do a study on its geographic distribution in the state. The research was directed to 104 stingless bees keepers in cities where it had greater concentration of creators of aboriginal bees in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The species of stingless bees of 104 stingless bees keepers distributed in 29 cities of the state had been investigated. It evidenced that the bee without sting M. subnitida, with 86% of frequency, is the stingless bees species with better geographic distribution in the Rio Grande do Norte state, predominating in all the visited keepers. The P. mosquito specie presented frequency of 4.9%. The presence of this species was not evidenced in all the studied areas, the same occurred with species M. asilvae with 4.3% of frequency, M. scutellaris with a frequency of 1.4%, and P. cupira, Frieseomelitta spp. and F. varia, that together they had answered with frequency of 3.4% in all state.

Melipona scutellaris: general characteristics. Gois, G. C.; Carneiro, G. G.; Silva, E. de O.; Campos, F. S.; F. B. Moreira, Londrina, Brazil, PUBVET, 2010, 4, 16, pp unpaginated, many ref.
Abstract: Before European settlement, the Americas and Australia did not have stinging bees; instead, there were native species of bee that had atrophied stings. The interest in these bees is justified by the nutritional and therapeutic use of honey, and can be an alternative to increase the income of farmers. Besides honey, propolis and pollen are potentially useful as alternative sources of rural income. Zootechnical exploitation of stingless bees for commercial purposes is a recent activity in Brazil and has attracted the interest of producers to new ways of production. It is necessary to promote the conservation and diversity of these bees, freeing them from the risk of extinction.

Microbiological quality of honey bee Melipona scutellaris. Gois, G. C.; Carneiro, G. G.; Rodrigues, A. E.; Silva, E. de O.; Campos, F. S.; F. B. Moreira, Londrina, Brazil, PUBVET, 2010, 4, 9, pp unpaginated, 4 ref.
Abstract: With the development of commercial establishment of native bees, there has been a greatinterest in the identification and characterization of honey come from stingless bees, to characterise it as food and also as a bactericide. Given this, this study aims to examine the characteristics of microbiological of honey bees Melipona scutellaris. The experiment was conducted in the Meliponário Module of Beekeeping and silkworm farming and the Laboratory of Plant, belonging to the Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, Campus II, during the period August 2007 to August 2008. The honey used for conducting the survey was from hives of bees M. scutellaris (uruçu) nest in Meliponário Sector of Beekeeping in commercial boxes that were numbered 1 to 7 for identification. The honey was placed on plates containing half BDA (Potato Dextrose Agar), totaling 7 treatments and 5 repetitions. All the honey used was from the Goupia glabra Aubl. The honey from hives had microorganisms that ranged from Penicilium digitatum, Penicilium sp., Aspergillus flavus, and yeasts and bacteria not identified.

Physical-chemical parameters of stingless bee (Melipona subnitida) honey after heat treatment. Freitas, W. E. de S.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Soares, K. M. de P.; Mendes, F. I. de B.; Oliveira, V. R. de; Lucas, C. R.; Santos, M. C. A. dos; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoro, Brazil, Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 2010, 4, 3, pp 153-157, 18 ref.
Abstract: This study assessed some honey quality parameters from bee species (Melipona subnitida) subjected to thermal treatment. Honey samples about 1 Kg were taken from Melipona subnitida ("jandaíra"). These samples were fractioned in Chemistry Laboratory from DACS (UFERSA). A part of these was analyzed immediately and the other one was subjected to thermal treatment at 70°C during 4, 8, 16, 24 hours. Physical-chemistry characteristics available were moisture content, total acidity, reducing sugar, HMF. The experiment was conducted with samples of honey jandaia subjected to five times of thermal treatments, performed in three replicates. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression. It was found thermal treatment effects on all traits (acidity, pH, moisture, reducing sugars and hydroxymethylfurfural). With the exception of the HMF, the other physical and chemical parameters (moisture, total acidity and reducing sugars) evaluated in honey Jandaira remained within specification suggested for quality control of honey from stingless bees.

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Amaral, I. M. R.; Moreira Neto, J. F.; Pereira, G. B.; Franco, M. B.; Beletti, M. E.; Kerr, W. E.; Bonetti, A. M.; Ueira-Vieira, C.; Elsevier, Oxford, UK, Micron, 2010, 41, 2, pp 123-129
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 µm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris.

Physical-chemical characterization of honey of guarana ("Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis") in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso. Fujii, I. A.; Rodrigues, P. R. M.; Ferreira, M. do N.; Escola de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Bahia, Brazil, Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal, 2009, 10, 3, pp 645-653, 27 ref.
Abstract: It was determined the physical-chemical characteristics and the pollinic origins of 17 samples of honey from guarana plant cultivation (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis), produced by Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L and Melipona seminigra sp. honey bee species in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Pollinic and physical-chemical analysis were determined, considering the variables humidity rate, free acidity, reducing sugar in inverted sugar, apparent sucrose, ashes and solids insoluble in water, comparing the samples to the identity and quality standards established by the local legislation. Means comparisons were made by the Dunnet test at 5% probability. The humidity rate for honey produced by indigenous honey bees - Scaptotrigona sp. and Melipona seminigra sp. - was high when compared to honey produced by Africanized honey bees, and the levels of reducing sugars for Scaptotrigona sp. were low. Any other determinations were accordingly to standards imposed by Brazilian legislation. Through pollinic analysis, it was verified that the pollen from guarana flower was present in all samples of honey, being considered dominant pollen, with 80% of the pollen grain in the samples, showing the apicultural potential of this species as a honey plant.

Flavonoids, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of propolis of stingless bees, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona compressipes, Tetragonisca angustula, and Nannotrigona sp. from Brazil and Venezuela. Manrique, A. J.; Santana, W. C.; Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas (INIA), Maracay, Venezuela, Zootecnia Tropical, 2008, 26, 2, pp 157-166, 46 ref.
Abstract: The flavonoid content and the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Brazilian and Venezuelan propolis from stingless bees, Melipona quadrifasciata, M. compressipes, Tetragonisca angustula and Nannotrigona sp., were evaluated using ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) against Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The propolis samples were collected in 3 locations (São Paulo State, Brazil and Miranda and Guárico States, Venezuela) from November 2003 to April 2004. The results showed that the flavonoid content was very low for all samples, ranging from 0.19 to 0.32%. The antioxidant activity was lower than 22 s for all samples (3-5 s on average). The EEP from M. quadrifasciata bees showed a higher antioxidant activity than that from the other stingless bees. All EEP showed a high antibacterial activity, with an inhibition halo between 11 and 30 mm, against S. aureus and Micrococcus luteus for all Brazilian and Venezuelan samples, respectively. The EEP from Nannotrigona sp. showed a higher antibacterial activity than that from other bees. The propolis studied showed high antibacterial and antioxidant activities despite lower flavonoid percentages.

Adaptation and foraging behavior of the stingless bee (Melipona subnitida) Ducke in a caged environment. Cruz, D. de O.; Freitas, B. M.; Silva, L. A. da; Silva, E. M. S. da; Bomfim, I. G. A.; Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringa, Brazil, Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences, 2004, 26, 3, pp 293-298, 34 ref.
Abstract: The effect of caged environment on the foraging behaviour of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida was studied in Ceará, Brazil. Species adaptation to enclosures, foraging behavioural aspects and daily foraging pattern were investigated in greenhouse-grown sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The results showed that M. subnitida adapts well to greenhouses and forages throughout the day. It may be concluded that this bee species can be used for crop pollination in protected environments.

Hypothesis on the origin of the genetic caste determination in Melipona species (Apidae, Meliponinae). Kerr, W. E.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 2-8, 20 ref.
Abstract: This paper describes caste determination in social Apidae, examines the variation in chromosome number in Apinae, and discusses hypotheses for the origin of castes in Melipona species.

Castle-specific gene expression in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Judice, C.; Hartfelder, K.; Festa, F.; Sogayar, M.; Pereira, G. A. G.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 150-155, 25 ref.
Abstract: Results are presented of a study on the differences in gene expression between newly emerged adult queens and workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and cDNA subtractive libraries.
Development of AFLP-markers for the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and their application to the genetic caste determination problem. Makert, G. R.; Paxton, R. J.; Hartfelder, K.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 156-160, 18 ref.
Abstract: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was designed as a highly sensitive method for DNA fingerprinting to be used in plant and animal breeding. Only few studies applied the AFLP methodology to insects, and no AFLP-protocol has been developed for bees. Therefore, we needed to establish and optimize an AFLP method for Melipona quadrifasciata. In this project, we developed AFLP markers for queens and workers. Our objective is to find reliable genetic markers for Melipona caste determination.

Seasonal strategies of harvesting by Melipona sp. in the Amazon region. Cortopassi-Laurino, M.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 258-263, 8 ref.
Abstract: Observation of the flight and foraging activities of bees (Melipona crinita, M. eburnea fuscopilosa, M. grandis, M. flavolineata and M. fuliginosa) were made in the Amazon region, at Xapuri City, Acre, Brazil, for some days during the dry season in October 1999 and during the rainy season in January 2004. Flight activity peaks in both seasons occurred in the first hours of the morning for all Melipona species, except for M. grandis which had a later flight activity peak. In terms of foraging dynamics, a shift in the materials mostly collected was observed, i.e. pollen in the dry season and rubbery resin with seeds and mud in the rainy season. The resin or red pulp with seeds, as well as the mud, are used for building structures inside the nest. Gathering of mud, which was absent in the dry season, reached 48.7% for M. crinita and above 15% in the other bee species. Mud gatherings increased immediately after the storms. Resin gathering, which was low in the dry season, was recorded in more than 25% of bees during the rainy season. Pollen gathering in both seasons occurred at temperatures of 24-26°C and air humidity of 84-95%. White pollens were collected from two species of Myrtaceae, and yellow pollens were collected from three species of Myrtaceae and one species of Umbelliferae [Apiaceae].

The sharing of male production among worker cohorts in Melipona (Apidae, Meliponini). Koedam, D.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 264-270, 21 ref.
Abstract: Studies conducted on hived colonies of Melipona subnitida and M. bicolor inside the Bee Laboratory of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil demonstrate that individual workers contribute to male production in different numbers and that the egg laying potential of workers is regulated by food (nutritional) conditions and social interactions during its ontogeny.

Ovarian development related to activity levels of nurse workers in Melipona bicolor: evolutionary significance. Aponte, O. I. C.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.; Santos Filho, P. S.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 271-279, 29 ref.
Abstract: A study of Melipona bicolor was conducted to verify if workers that participated more in the provisioning and oviposition process (POP) are heavier and if they present higher levels of ovarian development. Results revealed the correlation of individual weight and extent of ovarian development with the levels of activity presented by each nurse bee and suggested that ovarian development is necessary for workers to assist effectively in brood production. This study also demonstrated that in M. bicolor, behavioural differences divide nurses into non-layers and layers (of trophic and/or reproductive eggs), with egg layers being the most interested in POP as demonstrated by their continuous presence (constancy) and significant contribution to each process (assiduity). This separation indicates that ovarian development may play an important role in task partition in the colony and that it influences the degree of involvement presented by each worker.

Stingless bees as alternative pollinators and their possible competition with Africanized bees in Tabasco, Mexico. Domínguez-Sanchez, D.; Goulson, D.; Serna-Ramos, R. la; Jones, R. ; International Bee Research Association, Cardiff, UK, Bees without frontiers: Sixth European Bee Conference, Cardiff, UK, 1-5 July 2002, 2002, pp 128-133, 15 ref.
Abstract: In this paper we present the results of pollination experiments on three tropical crops and competition for food between native stingless bees and the introduced Africanized honeybees. The work was carried out during the spring of the year 2001 in Tabasco, Mexico. For Byrsonima crassifolia and Spondias mombin the presence of bees as pollinators increased the number of fruit set, but for Citrullus lanatus hand pollination treatment produced more fruits. Melipona and Africanized bees collected nectar on early a similar number of flowering plants - 9 and 12 respectively, but Melipona collected pollen mainly from 5 species of flowers and Apis on 10, this may affect the reproduction success of the former in long term.
Ultrastructure of the ducts of the reproductive tract of males of Melipona bicolor bicolor lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini). Dallacqua, R. P.; Cruz-Landim, C. da; Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Germany, Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 2003, 32, 5, pp 276-281, 39 ref.
Abstract: The present paper describes the ultrastructural features of seminal vesicle, post-vesicular vas deferens and ejaculatory duct of Melipona bicolor bicolor from newly emerged and mature males. Although the results do not show very consistent morphological signs of secretory activity by the epithelium of these organs, lipidic droplets and lamellar granules present in mature males' seminal vesicles and the vacuoles present in post-vesicular vas deferens are probably secretion. Besides, the spermatozoa in the lumen are immersed in a material of characteristic structure, which must be produced in superior regions of the reproductive system of immature males, not studied here. The presence of sperm cells, apparently in cytoplasm vesicles of seminal vesicle and post-vesicular vas deferens, suggests spermiophagy by their epithelium.

Offspring Analysis in a Polygyne Colony of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) by Means of Morphometric Analyses. de Carvalho, CAL (Lopes de Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo); Santos, WD (Santos, Wyratan da Silva); Nunes, LA (Nunes, Lorena Andrade); Souza, BD (Souza, Bruno de Almeida); Zilse, GAD (de Carvalho Zilse, Gislene Almeida); Alves, RMD (de Oliveira Alves, Rogerio Marcos). SOCIOBIOLOGY. Vol: 57 (2) pp. 347-354. 2011
Abstract: In the few cases of polygyne colonies in Melipona the presence of active queens is common, generating offspring from different maternal origins. One of the techniques employed to identify maternity of the offspring is morphometric analysis, which allows inter- and intraspecific groups to be discriminated. The objective of this study was to identify the maternal source of Melipona scutellaris workers from a polygyne colony with five queens using wing morphometric analysis. The right forewings and hindwings of 209 workers were used. The workers came from a brood disk extracted from the colony and taken to a B.O.D. incubator maintained at 28 +/- 1 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. Conventional and geometric morphometry analyses were made. Groups were discriminated, indicating that the material analyzed had different maternal origins, with predominance of one queen, which was responsible for 57% of the progeny. Cluster analysis allowed to confirm that the use of conventional morphometry can identify offspring groups from existing queens in a M scutellaris polygyne colony. However, such identification was not possible with geometric morphometry

Genome size variation in Melipona species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and sub-grouping by their DNA content. Tavares, MG (Tavares, Mara Garcia); Carvalho, CR (Carvalho, Carlos Roberto); Soares, FAF (Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida). APIDOLOGIE. Vol: 41 (6) pp. 636-642. 2010
Abstract: The stingless bees of the genus Melipona comprise a group with approximately 40 Neotropical species. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the size of the genomes of these species remains poorly known. Thus, the present study measured the DNA content of 15 Melipona species. The mean genome size (1C) of the females ranged from 0.27 pg to 1.38 pg, with increments of, approximately, 0.12 pg. It was possible to recognize two groups of species: the first presented relatively low DNA content (average = 0.29 pg), while the second showed high DNA content (average = 0.98 pg). This result corroborates the cytogenetic classification of these species into two groups, one of them comprising species with a low heterochromatin content (<50 and="" content="" heterochromatin="" high="" other="" species="" the="" with="">50%). Amongst the groups with low and high DNA content, there was no significant correlation between the DNA content and the size of the bees. The data obtained may aid in the selection of species which are suitable for sequencing projects, besides providing an overview of the diversity in the genome size of the Melipona genus.

Trophallaxis and reproductive conflicts in social bees Contrera, FAL (Contrera, F. A. L.); Imperatriz-Fonseca, VL (Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.); Koedam, D (Koedam, D.). INSECTES SOCIAUX. Vol: 57 (2) pp. 125-132. May 2010
Abstract: In the eusocial Hymenoptera, reproductive division of labour is a key aspect of colony organisation. In most of its species, workers are sterile and are unable to reproduce, while the queen monopolises reproduction. When workers are able to reproduce, a conflict with the queen or with other workers over male production is predicted. Because this reproduction may involve costs for the colony, the potential conflict over male parentage gives rise to important questions, such as what are the proximate mechanisms that allow a queen to control the reproductive potential of its workers, and which factors make some workers fertile and others not. In the groups where it occurs, an important mechanism for the regulation of reproduction is trophallaxis (the process of mutual feeding through regurgitation that occurs in several species of social insects). Trophallaxis gives dominant individuals a trophic advantage by taking nutrients from submissive individuals. In advanced eusocial species of bees, trophallaxis may also serve as an alternative hierarchical interaction in the absence of agonistic conflicts. In this way, trophallaxis not only represents an alternative path for hierarchical interactions, but it may be evolutionary linked to intracolonial conflict among workers

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Amaral, IMR (Rodrigues Amaral, Isabel Marques); Neto, JFM (Moreira Neto, Joao Felipe); Pereira, GB (Pereira, Gustavo Borges); Franco, MB (Franco, Mariani Borges); Beletti, ME (Beletti, Marcelo Emilio); Kerr, WE (Kerr, Warwick Estevam); Bonetti, AM (Bonetti, Ana Maria); Ueira-Vieira, C (Ueira-Vieira, Carlos). MICRON. Vol: 41 (2) pp. 123-129. Feb 2010
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 mu m fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes. granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Rodrigues Amaral, Isabel Marques; Moreira Neto, Joao Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos. Micron. Vol: 41 (2) pp. 123-129. Feb 2010
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 [mu]m fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes. granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. [copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Global stingless bee phylogeny supports ancient divergence, vicariance, and long distance dispersal. Rasmussen, C (Rasmussen, Claus); Cameron, SA (Cameron, Sydney A.). BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. Vol: 99 (1) pp. 206-232. Jan 2010
Abstract: Stingless bees (Meliponini) are one of only two highly eusocial bees, the other being the well studied honey bee (Apini). Unlike Apini, with only 11 species in the single genus Apis, stingless bees are a large and diverse taxon comprising some 60 genera, many of which are poorly known. This is the first attempt to infer a phylogeny of the group that includes the world fauna and extensive molecular data. Understanding the evolutionary relationships of these bees would provide a basis for behavioural studies within an evolutionary framework, illuminating the origins of complex social behaviour, such as the employment of dance and sound to communicate the location of food or shelter. In addition to a global phylogeny, we also provide estimates of divergence times and ancestral biogeograhic distributions of the major groups. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses strongly support a principal division of Meliponini into Old and New World groups, with the Afrotropical+Indo-Malay/Australian clades comprising the sister group to the large Neotropical clade. The meliponine crown clade is inferred to be of late Gondwanan origin (approximately 80 Mya), undergoing radiations in the Afrotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions, approximately 50-60 Mya. In the New World, major diversifications occurred approximately 30-40 Mya. (C) 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 206-232.

Postembryonic Development of Rectal Pads in Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Santos, CG (Santos, Carolina Goncalves); Neves, CA (Neves, Clovis Andrade); Zanuncio, JC (Zanuncio, Jose Cola); Serrao, JE (Serrao, Jose Eduardo). ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY .Vol: 292 (10) pp. 1602-1611. Oct. 2009
Abstract: The morphology and development of the digestive tract of insects has been extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the development of the rectal pads. These organs are responsible for absorption of water and salts. In insects where they occur, there are usually six ovoid rectal pads located in the medial-anterior portion of the rectum. The rectal pad has three types of cells: principal, basal, and junctional. The arrangement of these three cell types delimits an intrapapillary lumen. The aim of the current study is to describe the development of the rectal pads during postembryonic development of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Melipona scutellaris. Specimens were analyzed at the following developmental stages: white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae, and adult workers. The development of the rectal pad begins as a thickening of the epithelium in white-eyed pupae at 54 hr. At this stage, there is neither a basal cell layer nor intrapapillary lumen. The basal layers begin to form in the pink-eyed pupa and are completely formed at the end of the development of the brown-eyed pupa. In the brown-eyed pupal stage, the intrapapillary lumen is formed and the junctional cells are positioned and completely differentiated. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death were detected along with cell proliferation in the whole rectum during pupal development, suggesting that the development of the rectal pads involves cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. The rectal pads originate only from the ectoderm. Anat Rec, 292:1602-1611, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Intergenerational reproductive parasitism in a stingless bee. Oldroyd, BP (Oldroyd, Benjamin P.); Beekman, M (Beekman, Madeleine). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Vol: 18 (19) pp. 3958-3960. Oct 2009
Abstract: Insect colonies have been traditionally regarded as closed societies comprised of completely sterile workers ruled over by a single once-mated queen. However, over the past 15 years, microsatellite studies of parentage have revealed that this perception is far from the truth (Beekman & Oldroyd 2008). First, we learned that honey bee queens are far more promiscuous than we had previously imagined (Estoup et al. 1994), with one Apis dorsata queen clocked at over 100 mates (Wattanachaiyingcharoen et al. 2003). Then Oldroyd et al. (1994) reported a honey bee colony from Queensland, where virtually all the males were sons of a single patriline of workers - a clear case of a cheater mutant that promoted intra-colonial reproductive parasitism. Then we learned that both bumble bee colonies (Lopez-Vaamonde et al. 2004) and queenless honey bee colonies (Nanork et al. 2005, 2007) are routinely parasitized by workers from other nests that fly in and lay male-producing eggs that are then reared by the victim colony. There is even evidence that in a thelytokous honey bee population, workers lay female-destined eggs directly into queen cells, thus reincarnating themselves as a queen (Jordan et al. 2008). And let us not forget ants, where microsatellite studies have revealed equally bizarre and totally unexpected phenomena (e. g. Cahan & Keller 2003; Pearcy et al. 2004; Fournier et al. 2005). Now, in this issue, Alves et al. (2009) use microsatellites to provide yet another shocking and completely unexpected revelation about the nefarious goings-on in insect colonies: intergenerational reproductive parasitism by stingless bee workers.

The queen is dead-long live the workers: intraspecific parasitism by workers in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Alves, DA (Alves, D. A.); Imperatriz-Fonseca, VL (Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.); Francoy, TM (Francoy, T. M.); Santos, PS (Santos-Filho, P. S.); Nogueira-Neto, P (Nogueira-Neto, P.); Billen, J (Billen, J.); Wenseleers, T (Wenseleers, T.). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Vol: 18 (19) pp. 4102-4111 Oct. 2009
Abstract: Insect societies are well known for their high degree of cooperation, but their colonies can potentially be exploited by reproductive workers who lay unfertilized, male eggs, rather than work for the good of the colony. Recently, it has also been discovered that workers in bumblebees and Asian honeybees can succeed in entering and parasitizing unrelated colonies to produce their own male offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such intraspecific worker parasitism might also occur in stingless bees, another group of highly social bees. Based on a large-scale genetic study of the species Melipona scutellaris, and the genotyping of nearly 600 males from 45 colonies, we show that similar to 20% of all males are workers' sons, but that around 80% of these had genotypes that were incompatible with them being the sons of workers of the resident queen. By tracking colonies over multiple generations, we show that these males were not produced by drifted workers, but rather by workers that were the offspring of a previous, superseded queen. This means that uniquely, workers reproductively parasitize the next-generation workforce. Our results are surprising given that most colonies were sampled many months after the previous queen had died and that workers normally only have a life expectancy of similar to 30 days. It also implies that reproductive workers greatly outlive all other workers. We explain our results in the context of kin selection theory, and the fact that it pays workers more from exploiting the colony if costs are carried by less related individuals.

Stingless Bees: Chemical Differences and Potential Functions in Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Plebeia droryana Males and Workers. Pianaro, A (Pianaro, Adriana); Menezes, C (Menezes, Cristiano); Kerr, WE (Kerr, Warwick Estevam); Singer, RB (Singer, Rodrigo B.); Patricio, EFLRA (Patricio, Eda Flavia Lotufo R. A.); Marsaioli, AJ (Marsaioli, Anita J.). JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY. Vol: 35 (9) pp. 1117-1128. Sep. 2009
Abstract: Cuticular wax, abdominal and cephalic extracts of foraging workers and males of Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Plebeia droryana, from the "Aretuzina" farm in So Simo, SP, Brazil, were analyzed by GC-MS. The principal constituents were hydrocarbons, terpenes, aldehydes, esters, steroids, alcohols, and fatty acids. Interspecific differences for both cuticular wax and cephalic extracts were found. The composition of cuticular wax and cephalic extracts was similar at the intraspecific level, with minor component differences between males and workers. Abdominal extracts differentiated sexes (male and worker) at the intraspecific and interspecific levels. The main chemical components in abdominal extracts of N. testaceicornis workers and males were geranylgeranyl acetate and (Z)-9-nonacosene, respectively. The principal components of abdominal extracts from P. droryana workers and males were tetradecanal and unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), respectively. A secondary alcohol, (S)-2-nonanol, was detected in Plebeia droryana males only, but not in workers. Preliminary field experiments showed that (S)-(+)-2-heptanol and (S)-(+)-2-heptanol/ (S)-(+)-2-nonanol (1:1) attracted workers of P. droryana, N. testaceicornis, and Frieseomelitta silvestrii. However, males did not respond suggesting that these compounds do not function as alarm or recruitment pheromones . In addition, racemic mixtures were inactive.

Reseña del libro: Dinero fácil, primer tomo que forma parte de la Trilogía negra de Estocolmo



Felipe Román López


Jens Lapidus es un abogado sueco con amplia experiencia profesional y ha representado a algunos de los más conocidos criminales de Suecia, lo que le ha permitido conocer los pormenores del narcotráfico.

En este primer tomo, novela de género policíaco puro y duro, el autor relata muchas de las causas penales en que intervino, señalando el número de la causa, motivo de la acusación, interrogatorio del fiscal, declaración del acusado, actuación del abogado defensor y sentencia.

Relata la vida en la cárcel OSTERAKER, prisión de 2º. Grado, especializada en gente condenada por delitos relacionados con drogas.

A pesar de la estricta vigilancia se seguían consumiendo drogas en su interior: se tiraban bolsas con hierba por encima de los muros, los padres recibían dibujos de sus hijos, impregnados de LSD, la coca se escondía en los falsos techos de los lugares comunes, donde los perros no podían llegar a olerla o, se enterraba en el césped del patio de recreo, etc.

Lapidus describe cómo se entrena un corredor de velocidad preso para, con ayuda exterior, fugarse del penal y, ya libre, cómo es buscado por las mafias para que se ocupe de la distribución de la cocaína, en lo que él es experto.

El consumo de la coca, en Estocolmo, es muy elevado pues, en las fiestas nocturnas de los ricos, era señal de distinción que, a partir de las 2 a.m., se les proporcionaran a los invitados la posibilidad de aspirar las rayas del polvo de coca que desearan, pues el anfitrión pagaba al distribuidor todo el consumo.

Se relatan las actividades de las diferentes mafias dedicadas al narcotráfico, trata de blancas con elegantes y hermosas “call girls” de diferentes países, distribuidores de licores exóticos, etc. Y, de las mafias dedicadas al lavado de dinero, a través de casas de cambio, con apoyo de Bancos Suizos, al principio y, cuando se volvieron estrictos, a través de otros Bancos como los de la Isla MAN, Martinica, Bermudas, etc., las mafias de asesinos a sueldo, encargados de matar por encargo, los distribuidores de heroína, etc.

La obra cuenta las actividades y proezas de un policía al que le ordenan infiltrarse en una mafia dedicada al narcotráfico.

Interesante inicio de la Trilogía Negra de Estocolmo, donde el autor describe en forma precisa y prolija como es el mundo del narcotráfico en Suecia, donde lo máximo de la elegancia parece ser, entre la clase social privilegiada, al final de una reunión, donde el alcoholismo era evidente, aspirar libremente las “rayas” de cocaína que deseen.

La impresión que tenemos de Suecia es que es un país de primer mundo, con un alto nivel económico y educativo pero, las vivencias contadas por el Lic. Jens Lapidus, nos hacen comprender que Suecia tiene todos los defectos de muchos países, es decir, donde predominan la corrupción, la drogadicción, el narcotráfico, la prostitución y el fácil lavado de dinero de los narcotraficantes, a través de los Bancos de los paraísos fiscales.

Hay que agradecer su prosa ligera y rápida en la que Lapidus se empeña en demostrar que Suecia no es el paraíso civilizado que creemos y que también allí hay delitos de drogas, asesinatos, prostitución y gente sin escrúpulos. Con razón de esta trilogía se han vendido más de 1 000 000 de ejemplares.

 Dinero fácil
Autor: Jens Lapidus
Editorial: Santillana Ediciones Generales, S. A. de C. V.
1ª. Edición: noviembre 2009
Número de páginas: 617
Número de capítulos: 61

Viviendo el rock and roll



EL MUERTO

Quién dijo que a un Médico Veterinario no le gusta la música de Rock and Roll y sus nuevas tendencias, no sólo estamos circunscritos a nuestra especialidad. Sin embargo la pasión por este género musical la tengo desde niño y cada concierto lo disfruto en la primera fila, ahora ya en la tercera edad.

El Rock and Roll detonó en todas partes con la extensa difusión a nivel mundial de la ola inglesa con los Beatles y sus integrantes John Lennon, Paul Mc Cartney, George Harrison y Ringo Starr, lo que constituyó un hito en la historia de la música. Para 1964 esto ya era una revolución musical, y como fanático del rock, para esos tiempos ya me gustaba la música de los Beatles y de los Rolling Stones con Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones. Con el oído y el gusto musical para este género, en 1966 cuando ingresé a la secundaria escuché por primera vez a un grupo de rock en vivo cuando fui invitado a una fiesta, donde se presentaron los Beans de la colonia Romero Rubio, posteriormente conocí a otro grupo llamado las Moskas, ambos con muy buenos arreglos musicales, instrumentos y cantantes.

En 1969 a 1971 en la prepa 7 de la Viga, los estudiantes organizamos en el auditorio de la escuela algunos conciertos con grupos de rock desconocidos, los más rocanroleros fueron el Three Souls in my Mind con Alejandro Lora al frente, la banda Zafiro de Tijuana, su cantante “el diablo” y muchos más.

El domingo 9 de marzo de 1969 en el estadio de la ciudad de los deportes en la colonia Nápoles, se llevó a cabo un concierto organizado por los Hermanos Castro, donde se presentaron The Byrds, pero el grupo de moda The Union Gap no se presentó y hubo un tumulto donde salí lesionado. En otra fecha cuando vino a México The Doors con Jim Morrison no fui porque no tenía dinero.

El 15,16 y 17 de agosto de 1969 se realizó en una granja de New York el más famoso concierto de Rock en la historia, el de Woodstock con la asistencia de más de 400,000 jóvenes, cifra que superó anteriores conciertos como el de Monterey, California.

Del viernes 15 al domingo 17 de agosto, se presentaron los mejores grupos de la época como The Who con Pete Townsend y Roger Daltrey,  Canned Heat y su Boogie, Jefferson Airplane, Jimmy Hendrix y sus grandes interpretaciones, sin duda el mejor guitarrista de todos los tiempos, Santana con su líder Carlos Santana tocando su inolvidable soul sacrifice, Ten Years After tocando I´m going home con el guitarrista más rápido de aquella época Alvin Lee, The Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Mountain con Felix Pappalardi y Leslie West y su Southbound Train, estuve muy enterado del desarrollo del evento a través de las noticias.

La réplica en México fue el 11 de septiembre de 1971 con el concierto de rock organizado en Avándaro, Valle de Bravo, Estado de México, al que asistí y donde se congregó una multitud de más de 250,000 personas, increíble para muchos, pero como dijo un rockero mexicano “quién no estuvo en Avándaro, pues nomás no estuvo en Avándaro”. El concierto fue con grupos mexicanos y se les pidió que sus composiciones fueran originales, la noche del sábado 11 de septiembre tocaron en orden de aparición: Dug Dugs con Armando Nava; Epilogo con el “nono” Zaldívar; La División del Norte con Wayo Roux; Tequila con Maricela Durazo; Peace and Love con Ricardo Ochoa y Felipe Maldonado; El Ritual con Francisco Bareño: Bandido con Kiko Rodríguez; Los Yaqui con Mayita Campos; Tinta Blanca con Tomás Pacheco; El Amor de la Cd. de Monterrey y Three Souls in my Mind con Alejandro Lora, el concierto terminó el domingo 12 como a las ocho de la mañana. En un momento del mismo cuando se coreaba qué grupos de jóvenes había venido a escuchar esta música y de que colonia eran, la multitud rugió y casi se cae el escenario cuando mandaron saludos a la juventud de Neza. Debido a algunos inconvenientes, su transmisión directa por radio se suspendió, la sociedad y las autoridades consideraron al público asistente (rockeros) como bola de mariguanas

A partir de esta fecha el rock mexicano fue satanizado y los conciertos se llevaron a cabo en la Cd. de México en locales más bien pequeños, de estos salones sobresalieron el “Petulias” en la calle de Felipe Villanueva de la colonia Peralvillo, posteriormente conocido como el “Salón Chicago” donde se presentaban los mejores conciertos de rock mexicano, principalmente en este lugar se presentaron las mejores bandas en múltiples ocasiones, Cada 8 días fueron programadas tocadas, generalmente actuaban los que se presentaron en Avándaro, principalmente Peace and Love de Tijuana el mejor en Avándaro, el Ritual también de Tijuana y viejos y nuevos grupos con sonidos originales como Javier Bátiz y su banda, el Pájaro Alberto, Nuevo México, La Elocuencia, Zorra, El Perro Fantástico, Ganso, Mamuth, Love Army, el costo de entrada era de $15 pesos.

De 1971 a 1977 se abrieron nuevos hoyos funkies como se les conocía, el “Salón Maya” era el más grande, el “Salón Pelícano” localizado por la Av. San Juan de Aragón y Eduardo Molina de gran tamaño, más tarde “El Herradero” por la Calzada Ignacio Zaragoza km 17.5 a la altura de Santa Martha Acatitla, varios de ellos fueron grandes cobertizos o bodegas vacías, otros en el metro Balderas, Tlatelolco, el “Mandrill” junto al Monumento a la Revolución, el “Siempre lo Mismo” por la Av. Ocho, todos estos locales tenían llenos seguros con la presentación de bandas como el Three Souls in my mind con Lora, el “oso Milchorena” y el “chaparro hijo de blanca nieves”, Enigma, Canned Heat con “The Bear“ su espectacular cantante, la “lechuza ciega” gran requintista y Fito de la Parra en la bataca, esta banda estadounidense fue de las primeras que vino a México varias veces y dio muy buenos conciertos, fue muy famoso su “refried boogie”, Polvo con Ricardo Ochoa y Ramón Torres, Javier Bátiz, su hermana Baby Bátiz y Macaria, El Ritual, Méxiko 13, Al Universo, Stray Cat, Lazy, Arbol, Náhualt, Rock Moviloy, Zapato Rojo, Ataud Blindado, Banda Caverna, Toncho Pilatos, La Revolución de Emiliano Zapata estos dos últimos de Guadalajara, Jal., algunos salones como el “Emperador Moctezuma” de la colonia Nápoles ya cobraban en 1976 la cuota de $50 pesos.

En esa época México no estaba preparado musical ni logísticamente para recibir a los grandes grupos o bandas de renombre Mundial y una prueba fue el concierto de la banda Chicago que se presentó el 7,8 y 9 de noviembre de 1975 en el Auditorio Nacional, ahí estuve presente, pero chavos eufóricos que no pudieron ingresar al auditorio el primer día, bloquearon Paseo de la Reforma y quemaron camiones.

De 1973 a 1976 formé parte integrante de un grupo llamado “Arizona” que tuvo muchas actuaciones en tocadas que se anunciaban con papeletas pegadas en los postes de las calles de la Cd. de México, En este periodo tuve la oportunidad de escuchar en vivo a grandes artistas que vinieron a México y que se presentaron en la Arena México de la colonia doctores como James Brown el 4 de abril de 1976, a Barry White, grupo Tavares, el grupo War en diferentes fechas.

Me gustó mucho el primer concierto de Carlos Santana en México, que se llevó a cabo en un Auditorio en Puebla, Puebla el 23 de septiembre de 1973, así como la presentación de la Orquesta Cósmica del Sun Ra con todos sus 40 percusionistas en el Teatro Hidalgo el 20 de febrero de 1974, justo atrás del Palacio de Bellas Artes.
En los ochenta, fui a la presentación de John Mayall y su grupo en el Toreo de Cuatro Caminos, y en el Estadio de la Cd. de los Deportes tocó Deep Purple estos boletos ya me costaron $220 pesos para cada concierto.

Durante el periodo presidencial de José López Portillo hubo una gran apertura para la música y vinieron a nuestro país muchos artistas de fama mundial,  por lo que tuve la oportunidad de estar presente y escucharlos en los Festivales de Jazz y Blues que se organizaron en el Auditorio Nacional, Teatro de la Ciudad y Teatro Metropolitan.

Grandes maestros como B.B.King, Ray Charles, Chuck Berry,  Dizzy Guillespie, Koko Taylor, John Blind Davis, Papa John Creach con su agrupación hot tuna, Willie Dixon que se decía I am the blues, Muddy Waters, simplemente las mejores estrellas del blues estuvieron en nuestro país.

A principios de la década de los noventa arribaron magníficos grupos como Bon Jovi que nos deleitó en el Estadio Universitario de la Cd. de Monterrey, N.L.

1991
Santana se presentó el 25 de junio en el Palacio de los Deportes; la banda Chicago vino nuevamente el 20 de septiembre al Auditorio Nacional; los que dieron buen concierto fueron  ZZ Top y su blues tejano el 27 de septiembre, en el Palacio; una gran presentación fue la de Sting el 11 de octubre ahí mismo en el Palacio y Rod Stewart el 19 de diciembre también en el Palacio nos hizo recordar aquel concierto que ofreció años atrás con el estadio lleno de la Corregidora de Querétaro.

1992
El año se arrancó con la inolvidable serie de conciertos de blues en el Auditorio Nacional, el mejor fue el 8 de abril con la presentación de tres monstruos de este género Ray Charles, B.B. King y Chuck Berry.

Van Halen tocó el 22 mayo en el Palacio de los Deportes, calentando el ambiente de los grandes grupos: el 2 de octubre se presentó Iron Maiden con Bruce Dickinson al frente; el 21 de octubre vino Jethro Tull con Ian Anderson al Auditorio Nacional: el superunderground Black Sabbath estuvo en el Palacio de los Deportes el 8 de noviembre sin Ozzy y el mejor concierto del año fue el de Elton John en el Estadio Azteca el 14 de noviembre ante más de 110,000 espectadores.

1993
El año comenzó con un gran concierto de Metallica el 27 de febrero; para continuar el 23 de abril con Guns and Roses y Axel Rose su cantante y el requintista Slash con un magnífico concierto; para mayo 22 vino Santana; y Def Leppard que actuó el 28 de septiembre; todos en el Palacio de los Deportes, El Rey del Pop Michael Jackson presentó su memorable concierto el 29 de octubre ante más de 110,000 fanáticos en el Estadio Azteca y Sir Paul Mc Cartney se presentó por primera vez en México el 25 de noviembre en el nuevo foro autódromo ante más de 60,000 fanáticos, el que escribe entre ellos que coreó todas sus canciones hasta las lágrimas.

1994
El 28 de enero se presentó Robert Plant (cantante del grupo Led Zeppelin) en el Auditorio Nacional y el 25 de enero estuvo en el Palacio de los deportes por primera vez Aerosmith con Steven Tyler al frente, con sus acrobacias.

El 17 de mayo se presentó un magnífico concierto Phil Collins en el Palacio de los Deportes en un gran escenario diseñado para tal fin; el 9 de abril estuvo en el nuevo foro autódromo el grupo Pink Floyd con un sonido de lujo, lo inacabable.

1995
Los Rolling Stones que tantos años esperamos los que gustamos del Rock and Roll, nos iluminaron con sus canciones el 16 de enero en el ahora llamado Foro Sol y el “príncipe de las tinieblas” Ozzy Osbourne nos deleitó con su sonido heavymetalero el 28 de agosto en el Palacio de los Deportes y para terminar este año vinieron al Palacio el 24 de septiembre la base de Led Zeppelin, Robert Plant y Jimmy Page presentando un inolvidable concierto.

1997
Kiss se presentó el 9 de marzo en el Palacio; el 17 de julio se presentó en el mismo lugar la banda Pantera con el heavy metal más puro y el 2 de diciembre en el Foro Sol estuvo nada más y nada menos U2 con Bono al frente lo que hizo que el foro se superllenaza

1999
En este año hizo su presentación en México Red Hot Chili Peppers el 11 de octubre en el Palacio, esta banda venía de hacer su presentación en el festival conmemorativo de los 30 años del concierto de Woodstock.

2000
Se inició la década con la desbandada por venir a México de grandes grupos de rock alternativo, con fama en el mundo entero como Limp Biskit y su cantante Fred Durst, bandas como .Antrax, Linkin Park, Papa Roach, Slayer.

2001
El 19 de octubre estuvo en el Foro Sol el supermaestro Eric Clapton el mismo que formó parte de aquella superbanda Cream con Ginger Baker y Jack Bruce.

2002
La banda Korn y su rara forma de moshear llegó al Foro Sol el 2 marzo.

2004
Kiss de nuevo regresó al Palacio el 17 de agosto y de The Cure con Robert Smith tocaron el 4 de septiembre en el mismo lugar. Para cerrar el año el 5 de diciembre nos deleitó Green Day.

2005
Good Charlotte y su música alternativa estuvo el 21 de octubre en el Palacio. Pero lo mejor de este año fue la presentación de Pearl Jam con Eddie Veder al frente, el 9 de diciembre, simplemente maravilloso.

2006
Los Rolling Stones de nuevo se presentaron en el Foro Sol el 26 de febrero, con el más puro Rock and Roll de todos los tiempos; el 6 de abril vino un grupo finlandés The Rasmus con música alternativa, se presentó en el Auditorio Nacional; Más grupos de Death Metal y Trash actuaron aquí como Arch Enemy el 9 de mayo en el Circo Volador localizado por el metro Jamaica y Slayer el 24 de septiembre en el Salón 21 cercano a Polanco.
2007
Cradle of Filth se presentó en México el 21 de enero con su concierto de Black Metal en el Circo Volador, Por otra parte Roger Waters ofreció un magnífico concierto el 6 de marzo sobresaliendo un gigantesco puercote en globo que fue elevado en el Foro Sol, De nuevo Red Hot Chili Peppers se lució en el mismo Foro el 10 de marzo, para el 22 de abril las instalaciones fueron para la tocada de Aerosmith con Steven Tyler al frente.

Para terminar el año y como hecho sobresaliente se presentó The Cure con Robert Smith al frente el 21 de octubre con otra gran presentación en el Palacio de los Deportes.

2008
En este año hubo la oportunidad de escuchar a los metaleros de Iron Maiden el  24 de febrero en el Foro Sol y nuevamente a Ozzy Osbourne el 8 de abril en el Foro Sol, y después más música heavymetalera con Behemoth el 11 de mayo en el Hard Rock Café Cd. de México.

2009
Craddle of Filth se presentó nuevamente el 11 de enero en el Circo Volador y una sublime nueva presentación de Iron Maiden el 29 de febrero en el Foro Sol, Santana tocó en el Palacio el 22 de marzo y el grandioso Peter Gabriel se presentó el 27 de marzo en el Foro Sol.

Metallica llegó para presentar uno de sus mejores conciertos de sus giras mundiales en el Foro Sol el 6 de junio el cual fue estupendo y fue grabado para la posteridad, Arch Enemy estuvo el 23 de agosto en el Circo Volador y ya para terminar el año, los fanáticos de AC DC nos juntamos en el Foro Sol el 12 de noviembre para corear su actuación.

2010
Cannibal Corpse inició el 13 de febrero en el  Circo Volador, y Megadeth el 17 de abril en el Palacio de los Deportes, pero sin duda el mejor concierto fue el de Sir Paul Mc Cartney  el 27 mayo en el Foro Sol en su gira mundial Up and Coming Tour; otro buen concierto fue el de Bon Jovi el 24 de septiembre en el mismo Foro Sol. Finalmente Kiss nos deleitó con una gran noche el 30 de septiembre en el Palacio.

2011
El 11 de mayo estuvo en México el gran Bob Dylan ícono de este género musical en un nuevo centro de espectáculos el Pepsi Center de la Av. Insurgentes; el 21 de junio en el Palacio se presentó lo mejor del Trash con Slayer y de nuevo regresó a México Pearl Jam como uno de los grupos consentidos de la banda el 24 de noviembre en el Foro Sol.

2012
Metallica se presentó el 7 de agosto en el Palacio y Kiss/Motley Crue el 29 de septiembre donde retumbaron los cohetones y las luces de colores, haciendo su concierto inolvidable en el Foro Sol. El gran requintista Slash y su grupo dieron tumultuoso concierto en el Palacio el 27 de noviembre.

2013
En este año se han presentado Red Hot Chili Peppers el 5 de marzo en el Palacio y el gran Robert Smith con The Cure con aclamado concierto el 21 de abril en el Foro Sol, hasta cuatro veces regresaron al escenario para continuar con su música ante el clamor de los fans.